We’re back focused on the Moon but is this focus here to stay? It will be if we can develop agreement on why we need to go back to the Moon, this time to stay. NASAs' Artemis architecture provides a good framework for getting started, but how will we develop a permanent presence on the Moon? What are the technological challenges? What economical drivers are most likely to lead to a permanent presence on the Moon? And what can we do now to maximize our learning on the Moon for future exploration and settlement of Mars?